План урока по фонетике

30.04.2020

 

Как правило, занятия по английскому построены так, чтобы комплексно развивать различные навыки в пределах одного занятия. Но вполне может возникнуть ситуация, когда студенты попросят вас провести отдельное занятие, посвященное определенной теме или навыку. Или вы сами решите внести разнообразие в курс и сфокусироваться на протяжении всего занятия на одном аспекте. В любом случае, если ваш выбор пал на фонетику, предлагаем вам план урока, который будет полезен и интересен изучающим английский язык.

 

WARM-UP

 

Read the following words. 

 

  • hour

  • knight

  • sword

  • calm

  • foreign

 

What letters are silent in these words?

 

PRACTICE

 

 

1. Match the words from column A with the right transcriptions from column B. Then read the words.

 

A                                                       B

 

heir                                                  /ˈeɪ.li.əs/

colonel                                            /kwɪkˈsɒt.ɪk/

rhythm                                            /riːθ/

yacht                                                /jɒt/

gnaw                                                /eər/

honour                                            /kjuː/ 

alias                                                 /ˌɪɡ.nəˈmɪn.i.əs/

quinoa                                            /nɔː/ 

wreath                                            /ˈkɜː.nəl/ 

ignominious                                  /vɪˈsɪs.ɪ.tʃuːdz/

Worcestershire                             /ˈwʊs.tə.ʃər/

queue                                             /ˈrɪð.əm/

puerile                                           /ˈpjʊə.raɪl/

quixotic                                          /ˈkiːnwɑː/

vicissitudes                                   /ˈɒn.ər/

 

 

Can you translate these words into your language?

Which of these words are the most difficult to pronounce?


2. Read the groups of words. Name a silent letter that the words in each group have in common.

 

  • scent, fascinate, muscle, scene, scissors, scenario, descent;

  • biscuit, build, disguise, guilty, league, guide, guitar;

  • half, yolk, could, salmon, walk, almond, palm;

  • fasten, mortgage, thistle, ballet, castle, soften, chestnut;

  • knee, knife, know, knot, knuckle, knob, knit;

  • aisle, island, debris;

  • autumn, column, condemn, hymn, solemn;

  • ghost, white, when, whether, honour;

  • wrap, wrestle, two, whole, whose, write, wrong;

  • campaign, design, gnome, sign, align, reign, assign;

  • handkerchief, handsome, Wednesday, sandwich.

 

3. Look at the transсriptions of some English sounds. Name 5 English words for each sound.

 

E.g. /eɪ/ - great, sail, eight, make, tray.

 

/i ː/

/æ/

/ʌ/

/ɜ ː/

/aʊ/

/ɪə/

/tʃ/

/θ/

/ð/

/ʃ/

 

VIDEO

 

1. Watch the video and fill the gaps with the right words.

 

British vs American Accents

 

In this video I’m going to look at the differences between a British and an American ……………………… {accent}.

Of course, there are many British accents and there are many American accents. But I’m going to show you some of the major accent differences between them. So let’s start!

Linguists give ……………………… {vowels} names to make it easier to talk about them. The LOT vowel sound describes the vowel in words like “job”, “politics”, and “not”. When British speakers say this vowel, their …………………… {lips} might be slightly rounded. But Americans use a different vowel sound, and their lips will be more open

The BATH vowel describes the vowel sound in words like “behalf”, “passed”, and “path”. British ………………………. {speakers} – especially those in the south of England – will use a more back vowel sound here. But Americans will tend to use a more front vowel sound.

The words “water”, “authority”, and “fighting” have a T in the middle. Brits will tend to ……………………. {pronounce} a T sound here. But Americans will use a tap. This may sound like a short D sound or even an R sound if you’re a non-native speaker of English.

The word “yod” describes a /j/ sound. In the word "new", Brits will tend to pronounce a /j/ sound here. But Americans don’t – they’ve dropped the yod. In Britain this word can be pronounced with a

/dj/ ………………………… {sound}. But it’s also commonly pronounced with a /dʒ/ sound. This change from /dj/ to /dʒ/ is called yod-coalescence. You can hear Theresa May use the /dʒ/ pronunciation. But Donald Trump just uses a /d/ sound here.

In the words “shared”, “hard” and “work” most Brits will not pronounce the R sound but most Americans will. Donald Trump grew up in New York. In traditional New York accents the letter R is only pronounced in certain ………………………… {positions}. But nowadays the situation is more complicated with New Yorkers sometimes pronouncing the R and sometimes not. This is what Donald Trump does in his …………………………. {speech} — sometimes he pronounces the R and sometimes not. But for the purposes of this video it’s important to state that most Americans will always pronounce the letter R.

I’m going to finish with an interesting aspect of Donald Trump’s accent that’s particular to New York - rather than American accents in general. For me, the words “human”, “huge”, and “humour” begin with a /hjuː/ sound. But in New York accents, the H is ……………………… {dropped}, and we’re left with /juː/. Listen to Theresa May pronounce the H in “human”. And now listen to Donald Trump who doesn’t pronounce the H.

These are just some of the differences between a British and an American accent.

 

2. Decide which statements are true and which are false.

 

  • There is only one common British accent. {False}

  • When Americans pronounce the BATH vowels they use a more front vowel sound. {True}

  • The words LOT describes a /j/ sound. {False}

  • In traditional New York accents the letter R is always pronounced. {False}

  • In New York accents the H is sometimes dropped in the beginning of certain words. {True}

 

3. Try pronouncing these words with American and British accents.

 

  • park

  • horse

  • dinner

  • shop

  • want

  • carry

  • embarrass

  • water

  • fighting

  • path

  • new

  • huge

 

SPEAKING

 

Answer the questions.

 

1. What major differences between British and American accents can you name?

2. What accent do you like more, British or American? Which one is easier to understand?

3. What sounds do you consider the most difficult to pronounce in English?

4. Do you find transcriptions of English words helpful?

5. What English consonants can you name? And what about vowels?

6. What are the differences between vowels and consonants?

7. Do you have various accents in different parts of your country?

8. Can you name some features of using intonation in English?

 

GAME

 

Read these tongue twisters as fast as you can. You can turn it into a competition with your teacher. Ready, steady, go!

 

1. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

 

2. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck

if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

He would chuck, he would, as much as he could,

and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would

if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

 

3. Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew.

While these fleas flew, freezy breeze blew.

Freezy breeze made these three trees freeze.

Freezy trees made these trees’ cheese freeze.

That’s what made these three free fleas sneeze.

 

4. Betty bought some butter, 

but the butter was bitter,

so Betty bought some better butter

to make the bitter butter better.

 

Представленные выше упражнения подойдут для студентов уровня Pre-intermediate и Intermediate. Акцент в упражнениях сделан на развитие практических навыков. Надеемся, что этот план урока придется по вкусу вам и вашим студентам. Keep calm and sound native!

 

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